Turbulence

Derivation of cup-equivalent turbulence from Doppler spectra obtained by scanning CW lidar
M Pitter et al, EWEA (2015)
The paper examines the potential for CW lidar to measure turbulence characteristics from both ground-based and turbine-mounted lidar. A new method has been applied for the second of these cases, in which the instantaneous Doppler spectrum is used to derive a value of turbulence that corresponds closely to that measured by a cup. In doing so it avoids some of the well-known difficulties caused by spatial averaging and contamination by vertical components.

Lidar turbulence measurements for wind turbine selection studies: design turbulence
W Barker et al, EWEA (2014)
A major use of turbulence data in a site assessment campaign is to inform the selection of wind turbine type. Analysis of turbulence data from ground-based ZephIR 300 units has been used to investigate a hypothetical wind farm layout; the overall choice of turbine type is unaffected by whether lidar or mast data is used.

Lidar turbulence measurements for wind farm energy yield analysis
W Barker et al, EWEA (2013)
Measurement of turbulence intensity (TI) at hub height plays a role in wind resource assessment through the estimation of energy losses due to turbine wakes and is also a key component of site classification and turbine selection studies.

Can lidars measure turbulence? Comparison between ZephIR 300 and an IEC-compliant anemometer mast
W Barker et al, EWEA (2012)
Results are presented of a comparison of TI measurements from several ZephIR 300 units against an IEC compliant 91.5m anemometer mast. The data were collected over more than 5000 hours of operation at Natural Power’s dedicated lidar and sodar test site.

Investigation of turbulence measurements with a continuous-wave conically scanning lidar
Wagner, R. Mikkelsen, T & Courtney, M, Risoe-R-1682(EN) (2009)
It has been shown many times that the mean horizontal wind speed measured by a lidar over flat terrain compares very well with that measured by a cup anemometer. But can a lidar measure turbulence? This report investigates the case of a continuous wave, conically scanning Zephir lidar.

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