Complex Terrain

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The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Post-Process ZephIR 300 Wind Speed Data in Complex Terrain
S Wylie, A Woodward, S Sanquer, C Vezza (2017)
In this work, CFD conversion of measurements taken by a Continuous Wave lidar, ZephIR 300, in varying terrain types and complexity is demonstrated, highlighting a transparent methodology that is capable of producing bankable measurements in terrain not considered to be simple.

Lidar and computational fluid dynamics for resource assessment in complex terrain
M Pitter et al, EWEA (2012)
This paper contains a description of a complex flow conversion technique that converts raw lidar line-of-sight velocity data into precise, unbiased measurements of horizontal wind speed on hilly and mountainous sites.

Validated adjustment of remote sensing bias in complex terrain using CFD
Harris, M., Locker, I., Douglas, N., Girault, R., Abiven, C., Brady, O. (2010)
The horizontal wind speed measured lidar can be subject to differences in comparison to that measured by cup anemometers when flow is non-uniform across the lidar measurement disk.



Additional Papers

Flow tilt angles near forest edges – Part 2: lidar anemometry
E Dellwik et al, Biogeosciences 7 1759-1768 (2010)
The paper used a ZephIR for several studies and reaches a conclusion that lidar anemometry can provide consistent estimates of mean flow tilt angles also for the very turbulent forest flow. In general, the results from all sites pointed to the high accuracy of the lidar.

Conically scanning lidar error in complex terrain
F Bingol et al, Met Zeitschrift, 18 189-196 (2009)
WAsP Engineering was used to provide a correction to ZephIR lidar data obtained in complex terrain that accounts for the non-uniform flow across the scan disk.

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